Rice is ready to be harvested when the grains are hard and are turning yellow/brown. That is about 30-45days after flowering or a month after 50% flowering.
STEPS IN RICE HARVESTING:
Cut the stems with sickle about 10-15cm above the ground lay harvested rice crop in upright position for drying before threshing begins.
- Thresh immediately after harvesting and drying to avoid losses.
- Use whacking frames or mechanical devices, but avoid threshing on bare floor to prevent sand, pebbles and other foreign matters.
- Thresh on mat or tarpaulin over concrete floor or by flailing (i.e beating rice against the floor or against a stick of drum.
- Threshing carefully avoid de-husking the grains.
- Winnow to separate the chaff and empty grains from the well-filled matured grains.
- Remove foreign matter in the paddy to avoid localized heating spots during parboiling.
- Dry paddy properly to a safe moisture content of 13%-14% by spreading in thin layer (2-3cm thick) on clean concrete floors, mats or tarpaulin and turning over periodically.
- Sun dry slowly for 2-3days to reduce breakage during milling.
- On a clear bright day, sun day for one day(9-10hrs) only by spreading paddy thinly on clean concrete floors, mats or tarpaulin.
- Use a mechanical drier if available.
- Avoid drying on bare floor or roadside.
- Parboiled rice has the advantage of better storage, cooking quality, rich in food value, devoid of unpleasant odour and breaking less during milling
- Soak paddy in hot water at 700C for 6 hours.
- Remove all floating empty grains.
- Parboil rice by steaming rice paddy in jute bag for 10-16 minutes.
- Suspend the bag over steaming water in a drum.
- Stop parboiling when rice husks start to split open.
- Chalky grains or white centers indicate incomplete parboiling which may cause breakage of grains during milling.
- Parboiling can also be done using earthen pots or empty petrol drums depending on quantity of rice.
This is a process of removing the husk from the grains. Greater efficiency in the milling process results to whole grain with minimal broken grains to attract good price.
- Always mill rice in two stage milling machine.
- Always mill one pure variety at a time.
- De-stone, package, brand and store
- In Storage of rice paddy Make sure you store rice in 65% relative humidity.
- Store rice paddy at a temperature within 5.50 C of the average monthly air temperature and below 15.60C as long as possible during the year,
- Design and operate aeration system to maintain uniform rice paddy moisture and temperature.
- Store only well cleaned rice
- Inspect rice paddy regularly weekly.
PREVENTION OF STORAGE PESTS IN RICE GRAINS
- Used dried chilli pepper to keep pests away.
- Apply 2 tablespoon of phostoxin in an unsealed envelope per 50kg bag of rice grain.
N/B: phosphine gas is highly toxic and should not come in direct contact with rice grains.)
- Treat seeds/grains with activated silica gel powder to dehydrate possible insects in the bulk.
- Store grains in extreme low temperature.
- Use airtight containers for grain storage.