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Steps In Local Harvesting,Storage And Preservation Of Rice Grains

Written By Yoposts Admin on Monday, 7 August 2017 | Monday, August 07, 2017

Rice is ready to be harvested when the grains are hard and are turning yellow/brown. That is about 30-45days after flowering or a month after 50% flowering.

STEPS IN RICE HARVESTING:

Cut the stems with sickle about 10-15cm above the ground lay harvested rice crop in upright position for drying before threshing begins.


THRESHING:

- Thresh immediately after harvesting and drying to avoid losses.
- Use whacking frames or mechanical devices, but avoid threshing on bare floor to prevent sand, pebbles  and other foreign matters.
- Thresh on mat or tarpaulin over concrete floor or by flailing (i.e beating rice against the floor or against a stick of drum.
- Threshing carefully avoid de-husking the grains.

WINNOWING:

- Winnow to separate the chaff and empty grains from the well-filled matured grains.
- Remove foreign matter in the paddy to avoid localized heating spots during parboiling.

DRYING:

- Dry paddy properly to a safe moisture content of 13%-14% by spreading in thin layer (2-3cm thick) on clean concrete floors, mats or tarpaulin and turning over periodically.
- Sun dry slowly for 2-3days to reduce breakage during milling.
- On a clear bright day, sun day for one day(9-10hrs) only by spreading paddy thinly on clean concrete floors, mats or tarpaulin.
- Use a mechanical drier if available.
- Avoid drying on bare floor or roadside.
                                                  

PARBOILING:
- Parboiled rice has the advantage of better storage, cooking  quality, rich in food value, devoid of unpleasant odour and breaking less during milling
- Soak paddy in hot water at 700C for 6 hours.
- Remove all floating empty grains.
- Parboil rice by steaming rice paddy  in jute bag for 10-16 minutes.
- Suspend the bag over steaming water in a drum.
- Stop parboiling when rice husks start to split open.
- Chalky grains or white centers indicate incomplete parboiling which may cause breakage of grains during milling.
- Parboiling can also be done using earthen pots or empty petrol drums depending on quantity of rice.

MILLING:

This is a process of removing the husk from the grains. Greater efficiency in the milling process results to whole grain with minimal broken grains to attract good price.

                                                                 RICE MILLING

- Always mill rice in two stage milling machine.
- Always mill one pure variety at a time.
- De-stone, package, brand and store
- In Storage of rice paddy Make sure you store rice in 65% relative humidity.
 - Store rice paddy at a temperature within 5.50 C of the average monthly air temperature and below      15.60C as long as possible during the year,
-  Design and operate aeration system to maintain uniform rice paddy moisture and temperature.
- Store only well cleaned rice
- Inspect rice paddy regularly weekly.

PREVENTION OF STORAGE PESTS IN RICE GRAINS
  
- Used dried chilli pepper to keep pests away.
- Apply 2 tablespoon of phostoxin in an unsealed envelope per 50kg bag of rice grain.
N/B:  phosphine gas is highly toxic and should not come in direct contact with rice grains.)

- Treat seeds/grains with activated silica gel powder to dehydrate possible insects in the bulk.
- Store grains in extreme low temperature.
- Use airtight containers for grain storage.


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