Rice is an important crop and consumed all over the world. Therefore producing a grain is of high economic value and gives good income. They following steps will help you start an incoming flowing Rice Farm.
STEP 1: SITE SELECTION
One important step in setting up a rice farm is selecting a gently sloping to flat land, with good water retention capacity. Also in selecting a Rice Farm consider a clay loam soil, rich in organic manure and not prone to periodic flood.
STEP 2: FARM MEASUREMENT
It is necessary to measure farm size in rice farm due to the following reasons;
Helps to determine cost of land preparation
Type of equipments for land preparation
STEP 3: LAND PREPARATION
First the land should be prepared and ploughed, and then harrow the ploughed land after 2weeks before planting begins.
STEP 4: SEED SOURCING
Rice seeds can be sourced through the following ways;
Certified local seed producers.
Agro Input dealers.
ADPS in states
STEP 5: SOWING DENSITY FOR RICE SEED
In order to obtain vigorous seedlings , it is recommended to sow approximately 0.2kg of seed per M2 to reach approximate density. A 2500M2 field contain seedlings from a 50M2 nursery which is Five 10M2 beds which will require 10kg of seeds.
To obtain great result :
Make sure that good quality seeds are used.
Install the nursery on appropriate soil, well ploughed and well leveled.
When sowing, it is important to throw the grains with force into the sowing bed to fix them in mud, thus preventing them from being carried away by irrigation water.
Make sure that irrigation is well managed and protect the beds from birds, animals and any other predator.
STEP 6: PLANTING OF RICE SEEDLINGS
In Southern Nigeria, Rice seedling should be planted between May-June while in the Northern part it should be done between June-July , While with irrigated systems planting could start between March-April.
TYPES OF PLANTING PRACTISES
Direct plant seeder
Preferences should be given to transplanting and direct seeding using direct seed planter, this is to ensure appropriate plant population necessary for optimum productivity.
RICE PLANTING SPACING
The recommended spacing for rice field 20cm*20cm between plant and row, this enables farmer’s to buy 1 small granules of urea between 4 rice plants.
NOTE: Gap filling of empty spaces should be done with seedlings within 7-10days after planting using left over seedlings from the nursery.
STEP 7: FERTILIZER APPLICATION
Application of fertilizers can be done using the following types of fertilizers;
Cattle or poultry manure, composts, Rice residues from last year.
Application of organic manure on rice Farming
Use one bucket per square meter.
If fresh, incorporate in the soil two months before planting your rice seedlings.
Always incorporate organic fertilizer.
NPK 20:20:10, NPK 15:15:15, urea super granules
NPK 200kg, Urea 100kg or 100kg each for NPK and urea respectively in nutrient rich soil.
Apply NPK as basal fertilizer not more than one month after planting. Top dress with urea 6weeks after planting.
STEP 8: RICE WATER MANAGEMENT
Rice is a water loving plant, so control of water is critical. Always maintain the water level in the field up to 5cm from One week after planting until grain matures. Drain water, a week before harvesting and cracks should not be seen on field. Bunding is imperative for proper water management.
STEP 9: WEED CONTROL IN RICE FARMING
This can be done in Two Ways:
Hand Weeding: This should be done after 14-20days after planting; First drain water from the field. Another weeding should be done around 30-48days.
Chemical weeding: If chemical weeding should be done be applied identify if weed is Broad-leaf or grass.
In broad-leaf: Use 2-4D Herbicide
In grass: Use Basagram, Ronster or Orioles at recommended rates of 3kg for solid or 4-6litres fro liquid per hectare after 2-3weeks after planting.
STEP 10: HARVESTING
Harvesting of rice is done within 3-5months of maturity depending on rice specie, this is usually done when the grains are hard and have turned yellow/brown in colour.
Cut the stems with sickle about 10-15cm above the ground.
After harvesting rice crops , place in upright position for drying before threshing begins.
Hope You Enjoyed Our Article.
Stay Tuned For More On Rice Farming like;
Nursery Practices of Rice Framing
Rice Varieties and Characteristics
Rice Pest and Diseases
Processing of Rice grains